History of the National High School of Funchal
During the reign of D. Maria II, the Minister of the Kingdom, Passos Manuel launched the plan for national high schools, which replaced the classes created by the Marquis of Pombal.
Passos Manuel, inspired by the French model of public and compulsory education, published the Decree on the Reform of Secondary Education, on November 17, 1836.
The Decree of November 17, 1836 determined the creation of a high school in each of the capitals of the Kingdom and Overseas. Its objective was to guarantee the technical and scientific training of young citizens, especially those who did not aspire to pursue higher studies.
The curriculum of Passos Manuel's reform covered subjects from the humanistic areas and included new programs from the scientific areas. The proposed learning method was inductive and experimental, which led to the creation of spaces such as the Library, the Chemical Laboratory, divisions for Physics and Mechanics, Zoology and Mineralogy, and also an experimental garden for practical Botany classes.
This decree also enshrined the cost of attending high school, the qualifications and remuneration of teachers, as well as the forms of evaluation, inspection and management of teaching.
Following the reform of Passos Manuel, the Liceu Nacional do Funchal It was installed on September 12, 1837 in an area of the former Colégio dos Jesuítas, where Minor Studies classes, created by the Marquês de Pombal, were taught until then.
The entrance was via Rua dos Ferreiros, which gave access to the ground floor, with three rooms, around an open courtyard, adjacent to the military garrison barracks.
The facilities did not meet the architectural and pedagogical conditions stipulated in the decree. The State did not have the financial means to construct new buildings. In practice, most of the high schools created at the time were installed in existing buildings.
The regulations for the new high school were announced through a notice published on September 17, 1837 in the Madeiran newspaper Ocean Flower.
Although the new curriculum includes 10 chairs, only 6 appear on the list in this notice. In fact, the subjects to be taught at the Liceu Nacional do Funchal did not include science classes due to lack of conditions, at least during its first decade of existence.
This document also includes the enrollment conditions, the school calendar and the absence regulations.
The first enrollment at the Liceu Nacional do Funchal took place on September 26, 1837. Feliciano de Brito Correia, aged 19, signed up for the Latin Grammar and Portuguese, Portuguese Classics and Latinity, but ended up missing the year due to absences, according to the record in the institution's first enrollment book. However, he was not the only one, as in this opening year of the Lyceum, 43 boys enrolled, of which only 23 reached the end successfully.
The first solemn opening of the Lyceum classes took place on October 10, 1837, as stated in the minutes of the 3rd meeting of the Teachers' Council on October 2, 1837. The event was attended by the district's highest figures, as well as other guests, as well as parents of enrolled students.
On October 29, 1837, the newspaper Ocean Flower announced a public competition to fill a vacancy at the Lyceum for a professor of Portuguese and Latin Grammar, Portuguese and Latin Classics. the one with the most enrollments. Candidates had to be at least 21 years old and present a medical certificate and residence certificate indicating good behavior. Candidates also had to take an entrance exam.
Since the creation of the Lyceum, teachers have strived to organize a library for pedagogical-didactic uses.
The institution's collection includes some books from the XNUMXth century. One of the examples on display is the compendium Elementary Mathematica Lessons, 1801, translated from French. This features original leather binding, and addresses the Elements of Arithmetic, Elements of Algebra, Elements of Geometry, Rectiline Trigonometry, Spherical Trigonometry, Differential Calculus and Integral Calculus.The other copy is the ninth edition of Selected Logs of Portuguese Classics in the Main Genres of Prose Discourse for Use in Schools, of 1866.
In 1838, Lourenço José Moniz, professor of Oratory, Poetics, and Classical Literature, was appointed the Liceu's first effective rector. The rector, as the highest authority, was responsible for enforcing internal regulations and ensuring the primary function of “instructing, educating and moralizing young people”. Lourenço Moniz remained in the position for 12 years.
The disciplinary regulations of the Funchal high school, at the time designated Police Regulation was published in 1838. It provided for an intermediate punishment between reprimand and expulsion, that is, imprisonment. This punishment consisted of locking the student in a room for a period of no more than six hours, during which the student had to memorize a short “excerpt” taken from a moral education book. However, the Lyceum did not have adequate space for this purpose. In order to execute the aforementioned article, a request was made to the Civil Governor for a room in the Jesuit College building, according to the document exposed.
The history of the institution is linked to the former student Jaime Constantino de Freitas Moniz, who enrolled for the first time at the Liceu Nacional do Funchal, in 1851, at the age of fourteen.
On October 7, 1853, he renewed his enrollment in the subject of Portuguese and Latin Grammar and Latinity, as well as in the subject of Arithmetic, Geometry and Algebra.
It was this student who later distinguished himself by leading the secondary education reform of 1894-95, known as the Jaime Moniz Reform.
In October 1858, Infante D. Luís, Duke of Porto, future king, arrived in Funchal in command of the corvette Bartolomeu Dias, during the expedition to the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. During this visit to Madeira, D. Luís visited the Liceu.
On October 11th, Infante D. Luís, accompanied by the Civil Governor, was received at the Liceu Nacional in Funchal. The rector, Marceliano Mendonça, gave a brief speech, to which Infante D. Luís responded, expressing the desire for prosperity for teaching on Madeira Island. He then visited the classrooms. In honor of this visit, an act was drawn up, signed by the future king, who ascended the throne in 1861.
In 1881, the Lyceum moved to Casa do Barão de S. Pedro, a rented mansion on Rua dos Ferreiros, which offered more suitable conditions. However, due to the movement of students and rainwater infiltration, signs of wear became visible after two years, requiring several repairs.
The Lyceum remained in this location for more than 30 years, and during this period, in 1901, it received the name Liceu Nacional Central do Funchal, as it became part of the 6th and 7th year of the secondary secondary course.
The Lyceum's stay in this palace was also marked by the authorization for the optional use of school attire of cape and cassock by students at the Funchal Lyceum, similar to what already happened in other high schools in the country. This authorization was granted through a letter from the Ministry of the Kingdom dated February 22, 1889.
Academic attire made it possible to identify high school students.
In the photograph, twelve students from Liceu do Funchal pose in a cape and suit, at the Vicente photography studio.
In the 1909-10 school year, for the first time, two enrollments of female members appeared: the enrollment of Cecília Aguiar aged 14, born in Demerara, Guyana, and that of Alice Vasconcellos aged 13, born in Lisbon .
Some students came from both the Portuguese mainland and the colonies and countries linked to Madeiran emigration. These students accompanied their parents, sometimes on service commissions, or returning to their homeland, after a period of emigration.
With the increase in the number of students, the physical and pedagogical conditions of Casa do Barão de S. Pedro, on Rua dos Ferreiros, worsened, requiring another change of facilities.
In December 1913, the Lyceum was installed in the old Episcopal Palace, on Rua do Bispo, in a busy commercial area. The building had four floors, but given the growing number of students, it was necessary to rent rooms in neighboring buildings. The adjacent land also proved to be insufficient for recreation and sports facilities.
In this building, on Rua do Bispo, the classrooms were equipped with a platform, desk and teacher's chair, chalkboard with pointer and maps on the wall. The students sat on benches, on the back of which there were tops that served as a desk.
The works to adapt the building to its school purpose were never carried out due to lack of funds.
The courtyard was nicknamed “fence” and constituted a leisure space, where photographs were also taken of groups of students and teachers. This area currently corresponds to a significant part of Praça do Município.
In the Government Gazette, dated January 13, 1919, the Ministry of Public Instruction promulgated the change of the name of the high schools. Names of great individuals, bearers of civic, moral and intellectual virtues, were attributed.
In the case of Liceu do Funchal, in honor of its former student and illustrious Madeiran, the name given was Liceu Central de Jaime Moniz.
Jaime Moniz, after finishing high school in Funchal, continued his Law studies in Coimbra.
He worked in the areas of law, teaching and held political positions. He distinguished himself by the educational reform of 1894-95, known as Jaime Moniz Reform. This reform was marked by changes in programs, methodologies and assessment, as well as in the administration and organization of high schools.
Ângelo Augusto da Silva was the rector who most stood out in his position, between 1930 and 1966.
He was born in São Vicente, in 1896, and is pictured on the left, aged 6, in the fashion of the time. He studied at Liceu Jaime Moniz and later graduated in Mathematics from the University of Coimbra. In 1923, he began teaching Mathematics at this Lyceum.
The rector Ângelo Augusto da Silva is portrayed, in the center, flanked by other individuals, with the seventh-year students from the 1931-32 academic year, wearing a suit and cape, at Estúdio Vicente.
After the appointment of Ângelo Augusto da Silva as rector, several measures were implemented.
Presented here is the student's interim information bulletin, taken from the 1932-33 yearbook.
The objective of this document was to promote communication between the school and the family, involving those responsible for education in the school life of their students, calling them to school on the days and times set by the class directors.
In the 1931/1932 academic year, after an inspection, a commission of doctors concluded that the Liceu building on Rua do Bispo was unsuitable and posed a risk to the health of students and teachers.
In 1933, the District General Board formed a commission, made up of the rector, Ângelo Augusto da Silva, the director of Public Works, Eng. Abel Vieira, and the high school's school doctor, Dr. William Clode, in order to to indicate land for the construction of a new high school building.
The minutes of the first meeting, on September 26th, state that the presidency was the responsibility of the rector, and that the architect Edmundo Tavares, professor at the Funchal industrial school, would become part of the committee. It is also mentioned the intention to visit the land under study, and to publish in the newspapers the advertisement for the purchase of spaces in the city, with more than 12.000 square meters, for the future construction of the High School.
During the 30s, architect Edmundo Tavares designed the main, rear and right side elevations of Liceu Jaime Moniz. The building was designed in a volume stripped of decorations, in the Soft Portuguese style. This is defined as an architecture resulting from the conciliation between new engineering techniques, with the use of concrete structures and a slab, pillar and beam system, associated with traditional construction elements such as, for example, red tiles and stonework. .
This drawing of the main elevation of the Liceu de Jaime Moniz, shows, on the left, the main entrance with a clock, followed by the drawing of the three floors referring to the current rooms on the ground floor, first and second floor, facing Rua do Arcipreste. At the far right of the elevation, we can see a square, intended for the placement of the Portuguese shield in stonework, one of the nationalist symbols present in the public buildings of the Estado Novo.
The choice of land benefited from a decisive factor which was the free transfer, by the State, of the building and land occupied by the military hospital, located in the lower part of the city. The State also authorized the expropriation of adjacent lands until the necessary area was gathered.
The photograph documents the visit, by several individuals, to the first works on the Liceu building, which began in 1940.
In this image from 1942, the construction of the main entrance to the staircase at the Liceu gate is evident.
During the Estado Novo, new high schools were designed to be at a high level in relation to the public road, with access via staircases and intermediate courtyards, usually landscaped. The separation from the outside was achieved through walls and gates, with wrought iron railings.
School services were set up in the first days of October 1942. However, there was work going on in the physics, chemistry and natural sciences offices, as well as in the drawing and crafts rooms. The canteen, gym, locker room and facilities for male and female students still needed to be completed. Work on the playing field and streets was also far from finished.
According to the table published in the 1942-1943 yearbook, the year classes began in the new building, 217 boys and 96 girls were enrolled, in different years of schooling.
When there were two classes in a given year, the students were placed in class A, alongside the younger and more diligent students. The B classes were made up only of boys.
The 1942-43 yearbook contains a table with the subjects taught in the 6th and 7th year of high school, equivalent to the current 10th and 11th. It contains the subjects of the Science variant, with the weekly times and the names of the respective teachers. In the 6th year, the largest workload was in Portuguese-Latin, and in the 7th year in the subjects of Philosophy and Mathematics.
The Funchal Liceu began operating in 1942, but the official inauguration took place in 1946, after the completion of the works and the acquisition of school furniture.
The minutes presented refer to the official inauguration of the new building and the playing field, on May 28, 1946, the commemorative date of the 1926 Military Coup.
The inauguration ceremony, with numerous guests, was marked with the traditional cutting of the ribbon, at the entrance to the building, and the unveiling of the stone tombstone by the Civil Governor of the District. The formal session followed, in the gym, in which several entities spoke. After a visit to the playing field, the Drawing, Crafts and Crafts exhibition opened. The ceremony ended with the Portuguese Youth Physical Education and Choral Singing Festival.
In the photograph on display, you can see the main facade, after the completion of the works.
In terms of construction, it should be noted that local stone was used for the exterior walls and, in most of the interior rooms, cement blocks. Traditional tiles were applied to the roof, based on a wooden frame. Both the wooden floors in the rooms and the mosaics in the corridors and balconies were based on reinforced concrete slabs. Chestnut wood was used for the window frames and frames.
The plan, from 1946, shows the different areas of the Lyceum with their respective captions. The central body is occupied by the services of the rectory, secretariat, school doctor's office, library, among others, considered the most important.
The separation of dependencies, depending on the cycles and gender, female or male, is one of the hallmarks of this architectural model. With the increase in female attendance, new gender spaces emerged, such as the Lavores room and areas and recess areas reserved for female students.
Although it is not visible on the plan, there is an attic for storage and a basement where the center of the Portuguese Men's Youth Center was located, as foreseen in the 1938 architectural model for high schools.
In 1946, the General Council of the Autonomous District of Funchal published the reprint, authored by the rector Ângelo Augusto da Silva. This section, with a detailed description of the Liceu, reproduces the text already published in the magazine High Schools of Portugal, March 1946.
Firstly, the library stands out, with period furniture, where, on the tables, there are wooden supports for the books to be consulted.
In the second image, the designated space Museum, located in a transit area, accessible to all students, as foreseen in the architectural plan of the Estado Novo high schools. This gallery was occupied by showcases with preserved animals, to support Science classes.
Thirdly, an image of the Chemistry office is presented, with the teacher's table, the work tables with slate tops, the gas installation, the electrical sockets and other materials for carrying out the practical part.
This photograph reveals what the rectory looked like in the mid-40s.
In the rectory there were two antique tables, brought from the old high school, and a cabinet with locks, purchased and restored, as well as other furniture of the same style. The doors are made of Brazilian mahogany and the flooring is made of sicupira parquet.
On the wall, the crucifix, offered in 1940 by the National Commissariat of Portuguese Women's Youth, demonstrates the connection between the Estado Novo and the Catholic religion.
In the 1946-47 academic year, the rector Ângelo Augusto da Silva, the teachers and students from the 1st cycle of high school were photographed on the stairs at the main entrance of the Liceu.
In 1946, 1 boys and 220 girls enrolled in the 131st cycle. The classes were, as a rule, female or male, however, that year, 2 mixed classes were formed in this cycle.
Classes were assigned the letters A, B, C or D.
This plan, approved by the Pedagogical and Disciplinary Council, on January 30, 1947, included study visits to Liceu Jaime Moniz.
The visits aimed to put students in contact with the surrounding reality, in order to complete the teachings of the classes.
The plan includes visits to the Seminary Museum, the Municipal Library, the Analysis Laboratory, Radio Marconi, Olaria Funchalense, the Moagem Factory, the Embroidery Section of Casa Leacock, the Hinton Alcohol and Sugar Factory, the Nursery Campo Almirante Reis, among others.
Visits and excursions, inside and outside Funchal, were guided and accompanied by teachers.
In this daily notebook, of the 1947-48 academic year, the History subject for the 3rd year of secondary education was recorded. On the back of the cover, there are rules for its use, such as: the numbering of the pages, the lesson summary, highlighted in a rectangle in red, the record of notes and homework, the attached test sheets, etc.
Notebooks were considered an indicator of student achievement. They were also used as a vehicle of communication with the person in charge of education, who should initial the information. The absence of this signature, or the school notebook, resulted in the student being marked absent.
Daily notebooks were sold at the High School and had different colors, depending on the year the student attended.
The booklet on display, dated 1953, contains a record of registrations in study rooms and respective payments. The study rooms, paid monthly by enrolled students, came from bonus funds for teachers, depending on the sums collected and the service provided. The most disadvantaged students were granted half or total exemption from payment.
A photograph from May 1959 shows class A of the 4th year of high school, in the female section, with their respective teachers.
In high schools, with mixed attendance, as was the case at Liceu Jaime Moniz, there was gender separation.
In 1948, it was established that all students would wear a knee-length white coat.
On the white coats, in the upper right corner, emblems identifying the year, class and number of students were sewn. The color of the emblem varied depending on the year, as can be seen in this poster with emblems from the 50s.
In this record, a male class is observed, with their respective teacher, in a room on the ground floor. Some students wear a suit and tie, others wear a shirt and pullover or suede.
Wooden tables are single-person, with space under the top to place material. It should be noted that the first one-person and two-person desks were ordered by the rectory in 1932.
The image depicts a 7th year high school class, in the 1959-60 school year. These classes were mixed, unlike the other cycles.
The Physics and Chemistry class takes place in the amphitheater, equipped with a platform with a slate-topped work table. The student tables are two-person and came from the previous installations. Called “Model Funchal wallets” were made specifically for this High School. They were made of mahogany, with an iron frame, a fixed seat and a movable top with rubber shock absorbers.